Package of practices for managing major diseases

S.No. Name of the insect What to do    When to do Why to do  How to do   What not to do Why not to do
1.

Collar rot Sclerotium rolfsii

Deep till

During summer(May-June)

To bury debris and sclerotia of pathogen deep in the soil for making them ineffective

By deep ploughing

Do not allow water stagnation

It favours disease

Use of tolerant variety NRC 37

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To reduce the yield loss

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Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @5 g/kg OR with fungicide thiram+carbendazim 2:1 or combi product of carboxin & thiram @3 g/kg

Pre- sowing treatment at least 12 hrs before sowing

To control soil borne inoculum and early seedling infection.

Mixing moistened seed (about 10ml water/kg seed) with fungicide properly and drying them in shade

Fungicides should not be mixed with absolutely dry seed and not allowed to dry in sunlight.

Otherwise, treatment will not lead to desirable effect.

Optimum seed rate

At the time of sowing

To have good and vigorous crop growth

Following recommended seed rate OR removing excess seedlings

Seed rate for sowing should not be higher

Resulting higher population will induce pathogen favourable microclimate

2 years rotation or intercropping with maize/sorghum

During kharif

To reduce pathogen population

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2.

Charcoal rot Macrophomina phaseolina

Deep ploughing

During summer(May-June)

To bury debris and sclerotia of pathogen deep in the soil for making them ineffective

By deep ploughing

Do not allow field to remain dry for long period specially during seedling and flowering stages

The charcoal rot will appear on the crop speedly, robbing the yield of crop

Use of less susceptible varieties: NRC 2, NRC 37, JS 71-05, LSb 1, MACS 13 etc.

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To reduce the yield loss

At a time 2 to 3 less susceptible varieties should be used

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Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @5 g/kg OR with fungicide thiram+carbendazim 2:1 or combi product of carboxin & thiram @3 g/kg

Pre- sowing treatment at least 12 hrs before sowing

To control soil and seed borne inoculum and early seedling infection.

Mixing moistened seed (about 10ml water/kg seed) with fungicide properly and drying them in shade

Fungicides should not be mixed with absolutely dry seed and not allowed to dry in sunlight.

Otherwise, treatment will not lead to desirable effect.

Early sowing

Earliest opportunity available after the onset of monsoon.

To have less infection, good germination and population

Field should be kept ready with premonsoon showers and proceed for sowing at the earliest possible

Do not go for late sowing advertently, if chances for early sowing are available

With late sowing chances will be much more of coinciding the susceptible stage of the crop with the virulent stage of pathogen leading to either seedling mortality or reduced vigour of remaining plants

Reduced seed rate for disease hot spot areas

At the time of sowing

To have optimum moisture, nutrients available to plants which in turn induce good and vigorous crop growth

Follow recommended or sub-optimal seed rate OR remove excess seedlings in disease hot spot areas

Do not take higher seed rate

In hot spot areas which remain dry for long period, higher population will further deplete the soil moisture favouring the pathogen

Early sowing

Earliest opportunity available after the onset of monsoon.

To have less infection, good germination and population

Field should be kept ready with premonsoon showers and proceed for sowing at the earliest possible

Do not go for late sowing advertently, if chances for early sowing are available

With late sowing chances will be much more of coinciding the susceptible stage of the crop with the virulent stage of pathogen leading to either seedling mortality or reduced vigour of remaining plants

Maintain soil moisture

During crop growth specially between flowering and pod formation

To discourage pathogen multiplication

By irrigation

Do not keep field dry for long period

WithDry condition will be congenial for pathogen

2 year rotation with cotton/ cereals

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Maintain soil fertility

At the time of field preparation

 

Apply recommended doze of fertilizers to soil

Farmers should refrain from usual practice of not applying fertilizers to soybean

Otherwise, plants will be weak and therefore liable to attack by the pathogen

3.

Bacterial pustule Xanthomanas campestris pv. glycines

Deep till

During summer

To remove infected debris and roots

By deep ploughing

Field operation should not be done when it is raining

Encourages more infection

Remove crop debris and wheat roots

At the time of field preparation

To minimize the inoculum load as bacteria survive in debris and rhizosphere of wheat roots

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Use of resistant varieties: PK 416, PK1029, PK 1042, JS 71-05, JS 90-41, Himso 1563, Indira soya 9, KHSb 2, MAUS 32, NRC 7, NRC 37 etc.

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To reduce the yield loss

At a time 2 to 3 varieties should be used

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Seed treatment with streptocycline @500mg/kg

Pre- sowing treatment at least 12 hrs before sowing

To reduce pathogen load

By proper mixing antibiotic with moistened seed and then drying in shade

Antibiotic powder should not be mixed with absolutely dry seed and not allowed to dry in sunlight.

Otherwise, treatment will not leads to desirable effect.

Rotation with maize / arhar

During Kharif

Adequate K fertilizer application

At the time of field preparation

It will provide resistance to plant against pathogen

Add K fertilizer as per requirement

Do not avoid other fertilizers

Plants will be weak and growth of crop will be poor

Spray copper oxy chloride 0.2% + streptocycline (0.02%) or kasugamycin @ 0.2 % at 15 days interval

Spray between 25 to 45 DAS

To check onset as well as secondary spread of the disease

By mixing required quantity of both the chemicals in 500 to 800 litre of water (depending on age and growth of crop) and spraying properly on the crop so both the surfaces of leaf receive spray.

Do not mix other fungicide or insecticide with the spray solution without the advice of expert as there may be problem of compatibility.

There may be phytotoxic effect on the crop.

4.

Myrothecium leaf spot Myrothecium roridum

Deep till

During summer

To bury or remove infected debris and roots

By deep ploughing

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Use of healthy disease free seeds

At the time of sowing

To have good and vigorous crop growth

Follow recommended seed rate OR remove excess seedlings

Poor quality, discoloured and undersized seed should not be used.

The disease is also seed borne. Infected seeds will lead to poor crop

Use of moderately resistant varieties: JS 71-05, JS 335, MAUS 47, NRC 7, MACS 124. PK 564 etc.

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To reduce the yield loss

At a time 2 to 3 moderately resistant varieties should be used

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Seed treatment with fungicide with thiram + carbendazim @3g/kg (2:1)

Before sowing

To reduce seed borne inoculum of the pathogen

Mixing moistened seed with fungicide properly and drying them in shade

Fungicides should not be mixed with absolutely dry seed and not allowed to dry in sunlight.

Otherwise, treatment will not leads to desirable effect.

Spray of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl (0.05%)

Spray at 30 and 45 DAS

To reduce the effect of disease on the crop yield

By mixing required quantity of chemicals in 500 to 800 litre of and spraying properly on the crop so both the surfaces of leaf receive spray.

Do not take less quantity of water and also do not mix other fungicide or insecticide with the spray solution without the advice of expert

There may not be desirable effect and possibility of phytotoxicity will always be there

5.

Soybean rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi

Deep summer till

During summer in the months of May-June

To bury infected plant parts to reduce the source of primary infection, if any

By deep ploughing, should go up to depth of at least 12

Shallow ploughing should not be done

It will not be much effective.

One crop of soybean in a year

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To destroy the inoculum of rust by not allowing to multiply in host crop in off season.

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2-3 crop of soybean should not be taken in a year

Host will be available round the year to pathogen for multiplication. This inoculum will then infect the soybean crop in main season resulting in colossal yield loss.

Use of tolerant varieties: PK 1024, PK 1029, Indira soya 9, JS 80-21, MAUS 61-2.

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To reduce the yield loss.

At a time 2 to 3 tolerant varieties should be used

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Crop rotation with maize or other crops of the region

During Kharif season

To kill the rust pathogen inoculum.

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Soybean cropping every year in rust hot spot area should not be taken.

To break the life cycle of the rust pathogen.

One prophylactic spray (in rust hot spot areas) and need based 2-3 sprays of hexaconazole/propiconazole /oxycarboxin/triadimefon (any one)

Prophylactic spray at 25-30 days after sowing and other sprays at 15 days interval, 1st being at onset of rust

Prophylactic spray to check the primary infection and other sprays to check secondary spread

Mix required quantity of fungicide in 800 lit. of water. Spray operation should be taken up during evening hours.

Do not take low volume of water and crop must be sprayed with the onset of rust immediately.

To have sufficient volume of fungicidal spray solution and uniform spray over the crop for checking disease.

6.

Yellow mosaicMungbean yellow mosaic virus

Soil application of Phorate 10G @ 10 kg/ha

At sowing

To control insects and nematodes

Through ferti-seed drill or broadcast (Phorate can be mixed with fertilizers)

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Use of resistant varieties: PK 416, PK 472, PK 1024, PK 1029, PK 1042, SL 295, SL 525 etc.

Seed of resistant varieties should be purchased well in advance before sowing

To check or minimize the incidence of disease.

By cultivating 2 or 3 resistant varieties.

Susceptible verities should not be used.

It will not only lead to reduced yield but also help in build up of inoculum

Weed free cultivation by managing weed population

Throughout cropping season

To take care of certain weeds act as reservoir hosts for this virus.

By controlling weeds mechanically or chemically.

Do not leave weeds like Brachiaria ramose, Eclipta alba, Xanthium Strumarium around the soybean fields.

Virus will multiply in these weeds and infect soybean crop through the vectors white fly.

Seed treatment (ST) with thiamethoxam 70 WS @3g/kg

Pre-sowing treatment.

It will protect the crop from early infection of virus by controlling white fly.

Mixing moistened seed with insecticide properly and drying them in shade.

Insecticide should not be mixed with absolutely dry seed and not allowed to dry in sunlight.

Otherwise, treatment will not lead to desirable effect.

Spray of thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100g/ha

If ST is not done than 7-10 days after germination, otherwise at initiation of disease.

To control vector insects to manage virus.

By mixing insecticide in required quantity of water.

Less quantity of water should not be taken, spray in afternoon should be avoided.

Efficacy of treatment will be reduced.

7.

Phyllody associated No-podding syndrome

Deep till.

During May-June

To bury the infected debris and roots.

By deep ploughing.

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Soil application of Phorate 10 G @ 10 kg/ha.

At sowing.

To control insects and nematodes.

Through ferti-seed drill or broadcast (Phorate can be mixed with fertilizers)

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Sowing of disease free seeds at recommended rate.

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To have healthy and vigorous crop

Shriveled and diseases seeds should be removed before sowing.

Do not use high seed rate and do not keep high population.

Because high population will act as predisposing factors for insects which are directly or indirectly involved in this syndrome.

Avoiding cultivation of sun-hemp and sesame

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To avoid insect vectors and phytoplasma.

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Spraying recommended quantity of chlorpyriphos or triazophos or methomyl or quinalphos.

At 18-20 and 28-30 days after sowing at hot spot areas.

To check insects and insect vectors.

By spraying the spray solution over the crop so as both surfaces of foliage become wet.

Never take sub or over doze of insecticides.

Desired results will not be achieved.