On-going Research Projects

Project No. Years Project Title PI
Mega theme- Soybean genetic resource management- Acquisition, conservation, characterization, documentation and utilization
NRCS 1.1/87 1987-LT Augmentation, management and documentation of soybean germplasm
  • Dr. Sanjay Gupta
Mega theme- Genetic improvement of soybean for yield, agronomic traits, resistance to biotic stresses and improvement in quality of soybean seed
IISR 1.33/16 2016-LT Development of YMV resistant soybean varieties using marker assisted selection
  • Dr Anita Rani
IISR 4.3/23 2023-2028 Enhancement of seed longevity of vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. .Merr.) genotypes
  • Dr Punam Kuchlan
IISR 4.4/23 2023-2031 Breeding for high grain and oil yield for different maturity duration in soybean
  • Dr Shivakumar M
IISR 4.5/23 2023-2031 Soybean breeding for resistance against charcoal rot and anthracnose diseases
  • Dr Nataraj V.
IISR 3.12/19 2019-2024 Soybean Improvement against defoliating insects
  • Dr Vangala Rajesh
IISR 4.6/23 2023-LT Pre-breeding for broadening of genetic base in soybean
  • Dr Vangala Rajesh
Mega theme- Managing the impact of current and future climate variability in soybean
DSR 5.6a/08 2009-LT Breeding for drought resistance / tolerance varieties in soybean
  • Dr G. K. Satpute
DSR 5.6a/08 2009-LT Breeding for drought resistance / tolerance varieties in soybean
  • Dr G. K. Satpute
IISR 7.8/23 2023-2028 Trait identification and physiological breeding for water logging tolerance in soybean
  • Dr Prince Choyal
ISSR 3.16/21 2021-2026 Identification of genes/loci for better root system in soybean
  • Dr Giriraj kumawat
Mega theme- Development of specialty soybean varieties for secondary agriculture and industrial uses
NRCS 1.12/02 2002-LT Breeding for food grade characters and high oil content
  • Dr. Anita Rani
IISR 3.15/2020 2020-2024 Development of genome edited soybean lines with improved oil quality
  • Dr Milind B. Ratnaparkhe
Mega theme- Surveillance, forecasting and control strategies for insect pest complex in soybean
IISR 6.10/22 2022-2027 Soybean Improvement against Rhizoctonia aerial blight disease
  • Dr Sanjeev Kumar
IISR 3.13/21 2021-2024 Isolation and identification of kairomones and sex pheromones components for soybean stem fly, Melanoagromyza sojae management
  • Dr Lokesh Kumar Meena
Mega theme- Development of technologies for soybean based cropping system efficiency enhancement through resource conservation technologies, nutrient management. plant growth promoting microbes and farm machineries
IISR 3.12/2020 2020-2024 Interaction effect of phytohormones and AMF for enhanced nodulation, growth, yield of soybean with improved AMF symbiosis in the rhizosphere
  • Dr M. P. Sharma
IISR 6.9/17 2017-2020 Bacterial mediated sulphur bioavailability in soybean
  • Sh.Hemant Maheshwari-PI
IISR 6.10/23 2023-2028 Standardization of sustainable (Natural/Organic farming/Conservation agriculture) management practices for soybean yield maximization under soybean based cropping systems
  • Dr Raghavendra M
IISR 4.13/17 2022-2027 Evaluation of residue management practices under permanent broad bed furrow as well as conventional tillage practices for sustaining/ improving resource use efficiency, soil quality and crop productivity in soybean-based cropping systems
  • Dr Rakesh Kumar Verma
Mega theme- Information digitization, technology dissemination, impact analysis and socio-economic research for soybean
DSR 7.7/23 2023-2025 Development of Seed and Product Sale Portal for Online marketing in Soybean.
  • Dr Savita Kolhe
IISR 8.17/20 2020-2025 Development and evaluation of ICT tools and medias for TOT of Soybean
  • Dr. B.U. Dupare
IISR 8.18/23 2023-2033 Use and effectiveness of various extension programme for TOT of soybean/td>
  • Dr. B.U. Dupare

External Funded Projects

Project No. Years Project Title PI/Co-PI
DAC, Government of India 2005-LT DUS testing of soybean-Central sector scheme for protection of plant varieties and farmers right.
  • Dr. Mrinal K. Kuchlan
ICAR 2006-LT ICAR Seed Project - Seed Production in Agriculture Crops
  • Dr. M. Kuchlan
DAC, Minister of Agriculture 2018-2023 Creation of Seed Hubs for enhancing quality seeds availability of major oil seed crops under NFSM-Oil Seeds
  • Dr. Mrinal K. Kuchlan
SERB, DST Govt. Of India 2022-2025 Genomics strategies for improving anthracnose resistance in soybean (Glycine max L.)
  • Dr Milind B. Ratnaparkhe
DBT, Government of India 2022-2025 Expansion of Activities of Biotech-KISAN Hub in Eight Aspirational Districts in Madhya Pradesh – Phase II
  • Dr Rakesh Kumar Verma
SERB, DST, Govt. Of India 2021-2024 Genome- wide association mapping of charcoal rot resistance in soybean (Glycine max L.)
  • Dr Nataraj V.
BRNS, BARC, Mumbai 2022-2025 Development of high oleic acid mutants of KTi and lox2 free soybean gamma and electron beam
  • Dr Vineet Kumar.
DBT Government of India 2021-2024 Developing food-grade soybean using CRISPR/Cas9 mediated multiplex genome editing
  • Dr Vineet Kumar.
NASF, ICAR 2022-2025 Marker assisted stacking of yellow mosaic disease resistance, null Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, null lipoxygenase-2 genes, and broadening the genetic base of soybean
  • Dr Vineet Kumar.
DBT Government of India 2022-2025 Marker assisted introgression of seed weight, early maturity and photoperiod response genes in multiple stress tolerant climate smart soybean variety JS97-52 and KTI free variety NRC 127
  • Dr Shivakumar M.
NASF, ICAR 2023-2026 Targeted improvement of stress tolerance, nutritional quality and yield of crops by using genome editing
  • Dr Anita Rani
  1. NRC 142, free from Kunitz trypsin inhibitor as well as lipoxygenase 2, has been developed from a triple cross JS 97-52 x PI 596540 x PI 542044, through marker assisted forward breeding. First Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor free Soybean Variety NRC 127 identified for release to farmers in MP, Bundelkhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Marathwada and Vidarbh region of Maharashtra. Development of high yielding soybean varieties NRC 2, NRC 12, NRC 7, NRC 37 and NRC 86. Out of these, NRC 7, NRC 37 and NRC 86 are under seed chain.

  2. Development and commercialization of trypsin inhibitor free soybean genotypes NRC 101 and NRC 102. These genotypes need not to be boiled before mixing with wheat for preparing soy fortified flour. Kunitz trypsin inhibitor genotype in the background of JS 97-52 and NRC 7 have also been developed.

  3. Identification and commercialization of IC 210, a high oleic acid genotype with 42% oleic acid content against that of 24% found in regular soybean.

  4. Soybean genotypes with null lipoxygenase-2 ( the principal contributor to off-flavour) have been developed

  5. Collection, maintenance, evaluation and conservation of soybean germplasm. Presently, we maintain a collection of 4591 accessions and supply to users.

  6. Identification of germplasm accessions for high oil content, high oleic acid content, high protein, rust resistance, YMV tolerance, photo-insensitivity, long juvenility, drought tolerance, rhizoctonia root rot resistance, girdle beetle, defoliators.

  7. Identification of molecular markers linked to YMV resistance in Glycine max as well as Glycine soja.

  8. Identification of QTLs for 100 seed weight, pods per plant and seed yield per plant.

  9. Development of Multi parent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC) and Nested Association Mapping (NAM) populations.

  10. Development of infectious clones for screening of soybean varieties through agroinfection.

  11. Standardization of thin layer polymer coating for effective delivery of fungicides, insecticides and other growth promoting chemicals.

  12. Identified three new potential novel bacterial strains e.g., Paenibacillus mucilaginosus and Bradyrhizobium daqingense and B. liaoningense were isolated and identified from root nodules of three drought tolerant lines e.g., EC 538805, PK472 and EC 538828 respectively. These strains are being evaluated for abiotic stress tolerance traits for further evaluation on soybean.

  13. Identified Glomus intraradices (Rhizophagus irregulariae) as most predominant AM species harbouring in the rhizosphere of soybean, wheat and maize crops from a long-term soybean-based cropping system.

  14. Optimized a method for extraction and enhanced recovery of glomalin (glycoprotein secreted by AM fungi) which is crucial part in plant growth, nutrient uptake, soil carbon sequestration and carbon mitigation.

  15. Identified and evaluated three bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus aryabhattai MDSR 14 (JF792521) Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BK-5 (JF792523) and Pseudomonas moselli DKH-3 (JQ773432) capable of solubilizing zinc and phosphorus and mineralizing phytate; enhancing zinc accumulation in seeds up to 34% higher compared to without inoculation. Also solubilizes inorganic phosphates and mineralizes phytate.

  16. Development of computer softwares to facilitate soybean research (Germplasm information system, Varietal identification system, Data management systems for breeding and agronomy multi-location AICRPS data and Disease diagnosis system).

Germplasm Collection and Evaluation

  • Collection of 4370 soybean germplasm accessions including exotic, indigenous, breeding lines and wild species maintained and evaluated for various agronomic traits. About 210 genetic resources have been identified for various traits like photo insensitive, long juvenile, drought and water logging tolerance, root trait architecture, YMV resistance, disease resistance, rust differentials, antibiosis to spodoptera, insect tolerance, vegetable type, early maturity, bold seeded, small seeded, salt tolerance, high seed longevity, high yielding, high oil, low linolenic acid, null KTI, Lox 2 free, high protein, high oleic, low lipoxygenase and less mechanical damage.

    soybean germplasm collection
    soybean germplasm collection
    soybean germplasm collection
  • New germplasm lines have been identified for drought tolerance using a three tier selection scheme was developed for identifying drought tolerant germplasm and lines targeting delayed senescence.

  • About 1167 USDA core collection were imported through NBPGR which were under post entry quarantine. Also 112 AVRDC lines for vegetable type identification and 62 germplasm lines from Canada were imported through NBPGR.

    soybean germplasm collection

Soybean Varieties

  • High yielding varieties for biotic and abiotic stresses (NRC 2, NRC 7, NRC 12, NRC 37, NRC 86) developed and released.

  • Nine soybean varieties identified for release (NRC 132, NRC 147, NRC 136, NRC 128, NRCSL 1, NRC 130, RSC 11-07, DSb 34 and AMS 2014-1).

  • New genotypes/varieties with improved seed composition traits such as high oleic acid content, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor free and lipoxygenase 2 free varieties developed (NRC 101, NRC 102, NRC 106, NRC 109, NRC 127, NRC 132, NRC 147, and NRC 150). In addition, vegetable soybean genotype (NRC 105) developed.

  • Selected varieties/genotypes (NRC 101, NRC 102, NRC 109 and NRC 147) commercialized to leading corporates.

    Soybean Varieties
    Soybean Varieties
    Soybean Varieties

Biotechnological approaches

  • Molecular tools and biotechnological approaches applied in soybean improvement programme. Genes imparting resistance to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) in soybean identified and introgressed in the most popular variety JS335 using markers assisted breeding.

  • New Rpp1 genes associated with soybean rust resistance identified on chromosome 18 using comparative genomics and whole genome sequencing.

  • Mass-array based multi-trait functional marker assays developed for high-throughput genotyping of soybean germplasm accessions and breeding populations for traits like growth habit, flowering, maturity, oleic acid, fragrance, hard seededness, pod shattering, phosphorous use efficiency and salt tolerance.

  • A new SNP marker linked with plant height and number of nodes in an early maturing genotype IC15089 identified. Developed high yielding soybean varieties with improved resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and unique seed composition traits using marker assisted breeding.

  • A new functional allele of long juvenile gene E9 has been identified and validated.

Seed Treatment Technologies

  • Developed improved seed treatment technologies for soybean. Seed treatment in combination of salicylic acid, Molybdenum and Boric acid improve field emergence, plant growth, yield and storage potential of seeds.

  • Seed polymer coating with Pyraclostrobin and Thiophenate methyl, Carboxin and Thiomethoxam improves soybean seed germination, plant growth, reduce disease and insect infestation, maintain plant health thus increasing seed yield.

  • Application of nano-zinc and maganesium particle to seeds through polymer coating at improves germination at the tune of 12%. Application of nano-zinc and maganesium particle to seeds through polymer coating increased yield significantly (17%).

  • Developed improved production technologies for sustainable soybean production.

    production technologies
    nutrient management practices
  • Developed integrated nutrient management practices for soybean and soybean-based cropping system.

  • Recommended novel promising herbicides and developed integrated weed management tactics to control weeds in soybean and soybean-based cropping systems.

  • Climate resilient, productive and remunerative soybean based intercropping systems developed.

  • Soybean and other leguminous crops yield gap estimated using simulation modeling.

  • Fifteen new farm machineries developed for improving the soybean cultivation and production, nine commercialized.

    farm machineries
  • Developed novel biofertilizers [Bradyrhizobium daquigense, PK-472; B.liaoningense,EC 538828] as a N-fixing, drought tolerant with high trehalose accumulating biofertilizer for soybean. Identified Zn and phosphate solubilizing, phytate mineralizing and multiple plant growth promoting Bacillus aryabhattai (MDSR 14) microbial strain with NCBI gene sequence number JF 792521 and MCC Pune 2207.

  • Training program on “Improved Soybean Production Technologies” organized for framers with the frequency of 75 programs per year.

  • Yearly 300 farmers are trained at the institute while 25 villages have been adopted for overall development and training in agriculture production technologies.

    Training program on Improved Soybean Production Technologies
    Training program on Improved Soybean Production Technologies
  • Developed mobile Apps- Soybean Gyan (English and Hindi Versions) for the farmers.

Management of soybean diseases

Integrated management schedules of root, seed and foliar diseases ( charcoal rot, collar rot, rust, Myrothecium leaf spot, bacterial pustule, yellow mosaic etc.) have been worked out. Strain variation in Sclerotium rolfsii and Xanthomonas axnopodis pv. glycines has been established. Varieties/lines resistant to major diseases have been identified. Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens have been found effective for the management of collar and charcoal rot. A few natural plant products like Lawsonia, Tagetes and Acacia were found promising for the management of Myrothecium leaf spot.

Management of soybean insect-pests

Integrated Pest Management for soybean has been standardized and demonstrated in farmers’ fields. To facilitate scouting and monitoring, management of spray application, and assessment of likely damage, a month wise calendar of insect-incidence has been prepared. Effective chemical insecticides have been identified and recommended. Microbial insecticides, based on Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana, were found effective for the management of defoliators. On the basis of large scale field screening and laboratory screening, sources for insect resistance have been identified and are being used for developing insect-resistant varieties.

Plant Pathological Technology

  • Twenty-three diseases identified and classified in to major and minor based on their distribution economic significance. Myrothecium leaf spot, Alternaria leaf spot, rust, collar rot, pod and stem blight, anthracnose and pod blight, bacterial pustule, yellow mosaic and no podding syndrome were classified as major.

  • Yield loss estimation revealed a reduction of 14% by bacterial pustule, 48% by Myrothecium leaf spot, 80% by Indian bud blight, 63% by rust, 51% by Alternaria leaf spot and 36-80% by purple seed stain and 64% by stem and pod blight caused by C. truncatum.

  • A positive correlation of seed infection category of purple seed was observed with seed coat rupture, number of dead seeds and negative with seedling length, test weight, SSLI germination and number of normal seedlings.

  • Experiments have proved that bold seeds in comparison to small and shriveled seeds upon seed treatment with thiram and carbendazim resulted in reduced seedling mortality and increased seedling emergence and yields.

  • Seed borne diseases viz, bacterial pustule, Myrothecium leaf spot, Alternaria leaf spot , purple seed stain, anthracnose and pod blight and other diseases like Indian bud blight and rust severely affected field germination (ranging from 20 to 100%), and per cent loss in seed germination was positively correlated with percent seed borne infection.

  • Studies on some of the epidemiological aspects of bacterial pustule, Myrothecium leaf spot, Indian bud blight, Alternaria leaf spot and rust have been taken up.

  • Primary source of rust inoculum for south India is lying in the bank of Krishna River and its tributaries in the districts of Kolhapur, Sangli, Satara and Belgaum. Self-sown and winter-sown sole or intercrop soybean in irrigated areas might be harbouring rust pathogen in off-season and acting as a source of primary inoculum for rainy season soybean crop. There may be little or no role of collateral hosts in the initiation of rust. Four hot spot areas in Maharashtra and Karnataka have been identified where rust appears first and from here rust spread to other areas. Study clearly indicated that it is not the amount of rainfall but high relative humidity and congenial temperature, which are the main guiding factors for the onset and spread of rust. Study involving differential hosts and morphological parameters of urediniospores indicated presence of different races of rust.

  • Species of Colletotrichum, Septoria, Fusarium and Alternaria were found associated with cotyledonary spots.

  • Forty two isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii classified in to 6 groups based on cultural characteristics, sclerotial formation and morphology, and pathogenicity.

  • Sixty-five isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv glycines from different agroclimatic zones of India were isolated and twenty out of them were characterized on physiological and biochemical basis.

  • On the basis of pathogenicity 15 isolates of Colletotricum truncatum isolated from different agroclimatic zones were grouped into six pathotypes.

  • DNA has been isolated from the different isolates of C truncatum.

  • The growth of Sclerotium rolfsii in the medium containing sulphur, zinc, copper, iron, manganese and calcium was better. A pH of 6.5 and 350C temperature was most favourable for the growth and formation of sclerotia. Soil amendments with cotton oil cake, farmyard manure, biogas slurry and soya de oiled cake were promising in reducing pre-and post-emergence mortality caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.

  • Multiple disease resistant lines/varieties like PK 262, PK 327, PK 471, PK 695, PK 1169, PK 1243, PK 1251, SL 432, SL 459, SL 517, SL 528, TS 99-128, JS 71-05, JS 72-280, JS 75-46, JS 76-206, Bragg, Punjab 1, MACS 58, MAUS 52-1, VLS 2, Monetta, JS (SH) 91-33, JS(SH) 93-01, Himso 1569, NRC 35, NRC 41, NRC 44, RAUS-3, RSC 1, RSC 3, AMS 243, AMS 358, AMS 56, JS 20-29, SL-958, MACS 1336, DS 2614, DS 12-13, PS 1042, SL 688, JS 20-69, JS 20-89, SL 955, SL 983, MACS 1410, MACS 1407 and RVS 2002-4 have been identified.

  • Rust resistant/tolerant varieties/lines like, PK 1024, PK 1029, JS 80-21, C3P27, JS 90-225, PK 1197, RSC 2, EC 389170, EC 389178, EC 241778, EC 241780 and and DSb 21, DSb 23-2, Phule Kalyani and KDS 726 have been identified.

  • Varieties/lines resistant to bacterial pustule including germplasm lines viz. EC 389150, EC 389164, EC 390981, EC 390989, EC 390975, EC 390976, EC 390977, EC 391152, EC 391172, EC 391181, EC 393222, EC 393223, EC 393225 and EC 393237 have been identified. Similarly varieties/lines resistant to myrothecium leaf spot, collar rot, soybean mosaic, Indian bud blight have been identified.

  • On the basis of multi-year and multi-location screening AMS 243, AMS 358, AMS 56, JS 20-29, SL-958, MACS 1336 were identified as potential sources for resistance to Charcoal rot and DS 2614, DS 12-13, PS 1042, SL 688 for RAB & YMV.

  • Intercropping with maize and sorghum and pearl millet in 4:2 ratio, sowing up to 10th July, spacing of 30 to 45 cm and plant population of 4 lakh plants/ha found promising with less seedling mortality and higher yields. However, with pigeon pea incidence of collar rot increased.

  • Seed treatment with carboxin + thiram @ 2 g or thiram and carbendazim in the ratio of 2:1 @ 3g/kg seed found very effective for the control of seed and seedling diseases. Result of seed treatment was also encouraging on seeds of poor grade and ungraded seeds. Seed treatment 50 days prior to sowing was found much more effective than at the time of sowing.

  • Seed treatment with biocontrol agents viz. Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens increased seedling emergence, plant population and reduced pre and post emergence mortality. Consortium of three strains of T. harzianum was also quite effective for the management of charcoal rot and collar rot.

  • Seed treatment plus soil application of zinc and boron plus irrigation at the time of pod formation was quite effective for the management of charcoal rot.

  • For the management of foliar diseases two sprays of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl and for rust hexaconazole, propiconazle, triadimefon and oxycarboxin (0.1%) were found effective.

  • Foliar sprays of carbendazim and mancozeb at R2 and R6 stage increased seed germination and reduced seed borne fungi.

  • A method was develop to use agrowastes for mass multiplication of bio-control agents Trichoderma.

  • Trichoderma spp was found to be compatible with seed dressing fungicides like vitavax and thiram.

  • A web-based soybean disease symptoms, identification and management system has been developed.

Entomological Technology

  • An insect map, depicting major insect-pests at different AICRPS centres has been prepared.

  • A month wise (July to October) calendar of incidence of insect pests has been prepared to know the seasonal incidence of different insect-pests. M Three insects viz. white grub (Holotrichea consanguinea), spotted bug (Euscarcoris ventralis) and stink bug (Plautia fimbriata), were reported for the first time feeding on soybean in this region.

  • A prototype, Vertical Beat Sampling Tray, has been developed for easy, efficient and precise sampling of insect pests harbouring in soybean crop

  • IPM packages for major insect-pests have been developed and demonstrated, which give yield advantage of 4.79 q/ha over farmers’ practices and have ICBR of 4.01.

  • Suitable and effective insecticides were identified and recommended for the management of major insect-pests, through soil application, foliar sprays or seed treatment:

    S.No. Name Dose
    1 Triazophos 40 EC @ 0.8 l/ha
    2 Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1.5 l/ha
    3 Ethion 50 EC @ 1.5 l/ha
    4 Thiamethoxam 30 FS @ 10 g/kg seed
    5 Indoxacarb 15.8 EC @ 333 ml/ha
    6 Profenofos 50 EC @ 1.25 l/ha
    7 Bacillus thuringiensis @ 1.0 l/ha
    8 Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 150 ml/ha
    9 Thiacloprid 21.7 SC @ 650 ml/ha
    10 Imidacloprid 48 FS @ 1.25 ml/kg seed
    11 Betacyfluthrin 8.49% + Imidacloprid 19.81% OD @ 350 ml/ha
    12 Spinetoram 11.7 SC @ 450 ml/ha
    13 Thiamethoxam 12.6%+Lambda cyhalothrin 9.5%ZC @ 125 ml/ha
    14 Flubendiamide 39.35 SC @ 150 ml/ha
    15 Lambda Cyhalothrin 4.9 CS @ 300 ml/ha
    16 Flubendiamide 20 WG @250-300 ml/ha
  • Impact of insect and disease control methods was studied, and it was concluded that additional yield to the tune of 12.50 %, 26.89 % and 32.33 % can be obtained by controlling diseases alone, insects alone and diseases and insects both respectively.

  • Potential donors for insect resistance have been identified through large-scale field screening of germplasm and advanced breeding lines, e.g. TGX 855-53D, TGX 1073-55E, DS 396, EC 34500, EC 39739, EC 109545 (against defoliators), and L 129, L 592 (against girdle beetle). Some of the lines showing multiple insect resistance were also identified. Subsequently, promising lines were also evaluated for yield and yield contributing characters. Lines so identified, have been included in variety development programme of the Institute. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) was found to be highly resistant to stem fly and girdle beetle.

  • Suitable parameters for field screening for resistance to defoliators and girdle beetle have been identified and techniques standardized.

  • For the first time, radiation induced resistance to stem fly Melanagromyza sojae, coupled with high yield and early maturity was reported.

  • Potential naturally occurring bio-control agents were identified:

    1. Parasites: Brachymeria spp., Appenteles spp. and an unidentified dipterous larval parasite
    2. Predators : Rhinocoris fuscipes, Cantheconidia furcellata, Chrysopa carnea, Dragon fly and Spiders
    3. Insect pathogens : Beauveria bassiana, Noumeria (Spicaria) rileyi, Bacteria and Virus. Maximum activity of bio-control agents, especially parasites was observed during 2nd week of August causing up to 20-50 % parasitisation. High humidity conditions were congenial for entomo-pathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Nomuria rileyi) infection in green semilooper and tobacco caterpillar larvae. 30 to 40 % larval mortality was recorded due to B. bassiana and N. riley.

  • Extracts of Annona and Ipomoea leaves was found to have contact toxicity to Spodoptera litura as they damaged the cuticle, extracts of Lantana, Nicotiana, Pongamia and seeds of Acacia, Annona and Datura were found to have stomach toxicity as they damaged the mid gut epithelial layer and peritrophic membrane and extracts of Acacia, Datura and Eucalyptus were found to have both contact as well as stomach toxicity as they exhibited both types of symptoms.

  • Most suitable combinations of insecticides and herbicides were identified for different situations of insect-pest and weed incidence. Tank-mix application of Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 100 ml ha + Imazethapyr 10 SL @ 1.0 l/ha at 15-20 DAS was highly effective in suppressing populations of major insect-pests and incidence of both monocot and dicot weed flora.

  • Management of Spodoptera litura and semiloopers through entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema carpocapsae ) was demonstrated successfully. The mortality caused by EPNs was comparable with that by Bacillus thuringiensis and chemical insecticide- Quinalphos.

  • Yield losses due to major insects (defoliators, girdle beetle, pos borer and stem fly) at varying levels of infestation / damage at different crop stages were enumerated.

  • Anethum graveolens (Suva) was successfully used as a trap crop for managing the larval population. Row combinations of 12:1 and 12:2 were very effective and economical management of soybean defoliators.

Rotary weeder: A tractor­-drawn weeding machine for soybean

The newly developed machine is a combination of blade harrow cum tractor operated rotary mechanism through power take off (PTO). During operation, the weeds are cut by the blade followed by pulverization of the soil. Subsequent slashing of weeds is carried out by the rotary mechanism. The new machine is provided with guards for rotary mechanism, which protects the soybean plants from injury by the machine. These guards facilitate operation of the machine even in advanced growth stage. This weeder has also been provided with a “cross mechanism” for lower links of the tractor so as to check or eliminate lateral movement of the machine. A striking feature of this machine is that the narrow tractor tyres of 8.3x32 specifications have been employed enabling the operation of this machine in the standing crop. This machine is efficient and can accomplish weeding in 4 hectares during each working day of 8 hours. This machine can also be used in case of other crops like cotton with a little modification.

Intercrop seed drill for soybean

Intercrops seed drill for planting soybean and recommended intercrop viz. pigeon pea (arhar), maize or sorghum in recommended spatial arrangement of 4:2 row ratio. In operation the middle four rows are planted with soybean, whereas the flanked rows, one each on both the sides, are planted with intercrop. The seed drill has provisions to set the differential seed rates of soybean as well as that of intercrop as recommended/desired. Three boxes have been provided to accommodate fertilizer, soybean seed and inter crop seed separately. To facilitate driving and controlling the seed rates of the crops, three independent shafts have been provided. This intercrop seed drill can bring in a new era of sustainable intercropping for soybean farmers. It is also poised to counteract the risk of failure of one of the crops due to the outbreak of diseases and insects-pests, scarcity of water or unfavourable weather conditions.

Conservation till drill for soybean crop

Conservation till drill for planting soybean (5 rows at 45 cm row to row distance) was developed and tested at the centre. It prepares the seedbed and plants the soybeans in one go, thus reducing the extent of tillage and cost of cultivation. The machine is also time and fuel-efficient. The opener for seeding is coupled with duck foot type (width 20 cm) arrangement to work with surface land (about 7-8 cm depth) to facilitate loosening of soil. The machine has also been provided with special mechanism to cover the planted seed rows. This is one go sowing machine for soybean without any other preparatory operation after summer ploughing. The operation of machine simultaneously facilitates weed management also. The post operation condition of the field is akin to the field sown following normal operations. The worked up surface soil functions as soil mulch avoiding moisture loss from the soil.

Key line seed drill

Soybean has major command area in the vertisols of Malwa Plateau of Madhya Pradesh. The region is experiencing deficit and uneven distribution of rainfall creating water stress of different degree affecting the productivity of the crops. To mitigate the ill effect of above phenomenon and conserve adequate soil moisture to support the crop, a key line seeding machine (Photograph 7) has been developed and farm validated at the centre. The machine developed at the centre facilitates planting of five rows at recommended planting distance and simultaneously opens one row each on either side (fresh depth is about 20 cm which turns out to about 15 cm after settling) for facilitating removal of excess water and/or percolation of water in soil. The machine costs Rs. 12000 approximately.

FYM Spreading Mechanism for Tractor Trolley

The attachment provided with rear flap opening screws, which control the rate of spread of manure when hydraulic trolley is run in the field synchronizing it’s lifting. The mechanism draws power through a chain from the wheels of the tractor trolley for crushing and pushing the FYM. Two rotors with flat blades have been provided to crush and push the manure from the trolley. In a day of 8 hours, the machine can spread the manure in 4-5 hectare. This machine shall save manure labour and time for the operation.

FYM Spreading Mechanism

FIRBS machine for vertisols

A tractor drawn ridge and furrow maker coupled with sowing mechanism for soybean crop for vertisols was developed. The system consists of an array of alternating ridges and furrows. The ridges are about 20cm high and 75 cm apart.This tractor drawn equipment can form two full and two half ridges on which simultaneously six rows of soybean can be sown. For successful use of this equipment deep tillage followed by heavy planking before the onset of monsoon is crucial for the formation of effective ridges. Higher frame clearance was provided to avoid clogging of ridgers and frame.The machine is so developed herein sowing is carried after complete formation of raised bed simultaneously.

FIRBS machine

In-siturainwater conservation can be carried out either through land configuration or adoption of suitable tillage practices or through mulching. To validate the equipment field experiments were conducted during Kharif of 2002 and 2003 on Sarol series(montmorollinitic, iso hyperthermic, typic chromusterts) and compared with commonly followed practice (flat bed). The results of the study revealed furrow irrigated raised bed sowing machine forin-situ rainwater management provided an 32% yield advantage over flat bed method and can be recommended for increased soybean productivity.

Cross mechanism

Cross mechanism devised is very useful for checking or elimination of lateral movement of seed drills and other equipments. This mechanism is easy to fit and detach to and from lower links of tractor. This equipment has an edge over the check chains, which are partially effective in straight row operations. Using this simple device, the straight row planting and further operations using tractors are facilitated. The crop loss during weeding through interculture in standing crop using check chains could be brought down to 3-4%. Local artisans at meager price of Rs 80 could manufacture this simple device easily. It is always better to get this device manufactured for individual tractors for better fitment

Seed Coverer

Coverage of seed with the help of this device fitted to the tine of the seed drill helps to provide congenial environment to the seed for germination and emergence. This method of putting soil over the dropped seed allows moisture and oxygen to approach the seed under the covered soil. This is one go sowing machine for soybean without any other preparatory operation after summer ploughing.The device is 16 cm wide and 25 cm high. Inverted V notch with base of 10cms pushes the soil over the seeds for proper coverage. Normal planting results in 7-13% uncovered seed, which normally do not aid to plant stand. The device permits total coverage of exposed seeds normally results in normal planting. The device also helps in proper germination of bold seeded variety even if there is shower just after sowing.

Research Achievements of Computer Applications
  • A Mobile App-Soybean Gyan is developed. It contains comprehensive knowledge on soybean crop management at one platform. The App is available in Hindi and English languages for free download from Google play store -> Google Link and ->Google Link. It is very useful for farmers, agricultural advisors, agriculture students or research scholars and agriculture government officials.

    soybean gyan app
  • A Web-based Soybean Insect Identification and Management System has been developed for identification and management of Soybean insects. It provides information on different aspects of soybean insects viz. economic losses, pre-disposing climatic condition for insect attack, seasonal incidence of soybean pests during kharif season, friendly-insects of soybean and insect management recommended practices in Hindi language. It is developed using ASP.NET and SQL at backend. It is very useful for farmers in taking right decision at right time in their fields. It served as an effective IT tool for farmers to take appropriate and timely measures to minimize field losses due to insect attack.

  • A Web-based Soybean Germplasm Information System (WBGIS) has been developed. It provides an easy, efficient and user-friendly tool for the accurate and rapid retrieval of the information on different germplasm accessions. The system is developed using web technologies viz. ASP.NET, Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML), JAVA etc.

  • A Web-based Expert System for disease diagnosis in Soybean has been developed. It is based on fuzzy-logic Inferencing. It is developed using ASP .NET web technologies. It diagnoses the disease based on the symptoms observed by the user on the field at a particular crop age, applies the appropriate disease rules stored in disease Knowledge base and using the fuzzy-logic based inferencing method, it draws conclusion. It suggests an appropriate control measure based on the diagnosed disease.

  • A Knowledge Acquisition System has been developed as a sub-system of Disease Expert System. It provides a graphical user interface to create the disease knowledge base of any crop. At present, it has disease knowledge on 25 soybean diseases. It is developed using ASP .NET web technology. The Knowledge base is implemented using SQL Server.

  • An Intelligent Disease Tutor System has been developed as a sub-system of Disease Expert System. It acts an Audio-visual training tool to provide complete knowledge on 25 major soybean diseases.

  • Database Management system for AICRPS trials data has been developed with an aim to reduce the processing time and drudgery involved in the compilation of data and preparation of AICRPS Annual Workshop Report.


  • Web-based Varietal Information System has been developed to retrieve quickly and accurately the morphological character information of Indian Soybean varieties in a very user-friendly way. It also facilitates DUS testing.

    soybean gyan app
  • A Farmer Advisory System is developed to help the farmers to get the expert advice of the soybean experts. It facilitates sending of expert advice through SMS on farmers mobile phones. Farmers can also send their farm related problems to the soybean crop experts.